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Drug Addiction News

Nation's ER's Report: Abuse of Anti-Anxiety Drugs Up

drug treatment center pills addiction drug rehabThe number of drug-abuse related visits to hospital emergency rooms (ERs) involving benzodiazepine medications exceeded 100,000 in 2002, a 41 percent increase since 1995, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Nearly half of the emergency department (ED) visits involving benzodiazapines -- which include such psychotherapeutic sedatives as Valium, Xanax, Klonopin, and Ativan -- were connected with suicidal ideation, gestures or attempts.

> Read the Nation's ER's Report
 

Prescription Drug Abuse in The Military

drug treatment center pills addiction drug rehabToday, some of the most pressing substance-abuse concerns in the U.S. military involve prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Some health officials contend that too many troops are being authorized to take antidepressants and sleeping pills, while others are worried about the illicit sharing of prescription drugs and the overuse of OTC meds by men and women in uniform.

> More on Prescription Drug Abuse in the Military

For Many, Stress Leads to the Use and Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco...

drug treatment center pills addiction drug rehabSome of the Basic Facts
Stressful events can have a direct affect on the use of alcohol or other drugs. Stress is a major contributor to the initiation and continuation of drug addiction and alcohol abuse, as well as to relapse or a return to drug use after periods of abstinence.

Stress is one of the major factors known to cause relapse to smoking, even after prolonged periods of abstinence.

Children exposed to severe stress may be more vulnerable to drug use. A number of clinical and epidemiological studies show a strong association between psychosocial stressors early in life (e.g., parental loss, child abuse) and an increased risk for depression, anxiety, impulsive behavior, and substance abuse in adulthood.

> More on Stress Related Usage
 
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Codene Addiction

What is Codeine and how is it used?

Codeine is a member of the drug class opiates. Opiates include all naturally occurring drugs with morphine-like effects such as codeine and all semi and fully synthetic drugs with morphine-like effects such as heroin and meperidine (Demerol).

Codeine was first discovered as a natural constituent of opium in very small concentrations, in the range of 0.7% - 2.5% by weight. Most codeine found in pharmaceutical products today is synthetically produced via the methylation of morphine.

Codeine is normally administered:

  • orally
  • subcutaneously
  • intramuscularly
  • rectally

Codeine cannot be safely administered by intravenously as it may result in pulmonary oedema, facial swelling, dangerous release of histamines, and various cardiovascular effects.

It cannot be administered intranasally (snorting). Codeine free base can be smoked on the aluminum foil ("chasing the dragon") similarly to smoking heroin.

What are some of the common effects of Codeine addiction

Codeine is absorbed quickly from the GI tract and it's first pass through the liver results in very little loss of the drug. This contrasts with morphine in which over 90% of the drug is metabolized in the first pass through the liver resulting in a considerable loss of potency when administered orally.

Narcotics induce an "opioid analgesia" by altering the perception of pain at the spinal cord and brain. They also affect emotional responses to pain. Opioids have stimulating effects as well because they block inhibitory neurotransmitters. Repeated use of these drugs can cause long-term changes in the way the nervous system functions and incite:

  • stomach bleeding
  • kidney damage
  • liver damage
  • "itchies"
  • constipation
  • nausea
  • hangover
  • tiny pupils
  • blurred vision
  • poor night vision
  • impair driving ability
  • lowered heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
  • disorientation
  • convulsions
  • hallucinations
  • depression
  • sexual problems
  • agitation
  • tremors
  • seizures

Codeine symptoms and side effects of withdrawl from codeine

The worst symptoms pass within a few days, but it can take months to feel normal.

  • runny nose
  • sweating
  • muscle twitching
  • muscle pain
  • headaches
  • irregular heartbeat
  • nausea and vomiting
  • high blood pressure
  • fever
  • insomnia
  • dehydration
  • yawning
  • weakness
  • stomach cramps

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